PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE TOWARD SUSTAINABLE RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT
Sri Pudyastuti, Purwanti
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In Indonesia, there are 89 river basins and 59 of these river basins were in critical condition in 1998 (Dirjen Penataan Ruang, 2003). Now, the number of critical river basins in Indonesia could increase due to deforestation, uncontrolled-illegal logging and over exploitation of natural resources. This condition gives negative impacts such as flood and landslide in many regions. There are some efforts could be done to minimize flood and landslide such as implementing integrated river basin management involving all stakeholders and using multi-discipliner approach. Integrated river basin management is a time consuming activity and costly. Payment for environmental services (PES) is a funding model implemented regarding to river basin management that involves all stakeholder in upstream and downstream areas of a river basin. This paper is abstracted from literature study based on some resources. According to this literature study, it is reported that PES has been implemented in some countries such as USA, Costa Rica, Australia, Philippines, and France. In Indonesia, an example model of PES is implemented in Bengawan Solo River Basin and Kali Brantas River Basin, and the program is called as Role Sharing Program. This role sharing program is important, and should be implemented in all river basins in Indonesia to ensure the sustainability of the river basins.