Social Cognitive Theory: The Relationship between Knowledge, Environmental Observation, Outcome Expectation, Self-Efficacy, and Preventive Behavior of Over Weight in Adolescent
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BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global health problem that has been increasing in various age groups, including adolescents. Overweight and obesity should be prevented to reduce the risks of various chronic diseases, including cardio-vascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Albert Bandura proposed Social Cognitive Theory to explain health-related behaviors. This study aimed to determine the relationship between knowledge, environmental observation, outcome expectation, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior of overweight in adolescent, using Social Cognitive Theory. SUBJECT AND METHODS: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design, conducted in Malang, East Java. A total of 90 overweight or obese high school students in Malang were selected for this study. A set of questionnaire was designed to measure knowledge, environmental observation, outcome expectation, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior of overweight. This questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability. The data was analyzed using multiple linear regression model on STATA program. RESULTS: Environmental observation (b=0.11; CI 95%=0.00 to 0.23; p=0.047), outcome expectation (b=0.11; CI 95%=0.00 to 0.22; p=0.041), and self-efficacy (b=0.14; CI 95%=0.04 to 0.24; p=0.006) had positive relationship with preventive behavior of overweight. However, the relationship between knowledge and preventive behavior was not statistically significant (b=-0.14; CI 95%=-0.44 to 0.15; p=0.342). Together the independent variables in the model explained 38% of the variation in preventive behavior of overweight (adjusted R2=38.06). CONCLUSION: Environmental observation, outcome expectation, and self-efficacy had positive relationship with preventive behavior overweight.