Antibacterial Activity of Combination of Chloramphenicol and Ethanolic Extract of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina) Leaves Against Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei
Prabowo, Agung Cokro
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Chloramphenicol, a broad spectrum antibiotic, is used to treat several bacterial infections. It has several side effects such as headache, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, and aplastic anemia. Combining antibiotic with another antibacterial agent may decrease antibiotic dose and hence the side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of chloramphenicol in combination with ethanolic extract of garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina) leaves against Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei. Chloramphenicol (30 g), extract (2500 g), combination of chloramphenicol and extract (22.5 g+625 g and 15 g+1250 g), dimethylsulfoxide, and water for injection were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei using well diffusion method. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. The results showed that only chloramphenicol (22.5 g) combined with extract (625 g) has inhibition zone diameter, which was not significantly different from chloramphenicol alone (30 g) when it tested against E. coli. These results indicated that combination of the antibiotic in lower concentration and extract can achieve the same antibacterial activity as antibiotic alone in higher concentration.