Model penyelenggaraan pemilu terpadu dan efeknya bagi pendidikan masyarakat: Pemilu Nasional dan Pemilu Daerah
Wirabhumi, Eddy S
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The political system that is used in this reform era, tend to be called as democratized-participatory political system. Participation which mentioned here includes political participation in the processes of planning, taking, implementing, and monitoring of decisions or policies. Public participation may form as acceptance, acceptance with conditions, support, rejection, or giving alternative. The implementation of General Election in this reform era, which consists of Regional Head Election, Legislative Elections and the Presidential Election, were a decision-making processes through voting with a very large scale, which is called the democracy party. The reduced degree of participation in the 2004’s General Elections and 2009’s General Elections, both Presidential Elections and Legislative Elections, because of two factors, first, saturation and second, apathy. Public, especially voters felt bored, because of there were a lot of governance elections directly, with the same pattern, since the “Pilkades”, Regional Head Elections (governors, regents, and mayors), Legislative Elections, and the Presidential Election. The emergence of voter apathy in the community especially, because some voters thought that the existing election system has not been able to create a pattern of leadership in accordance with the aspirations of the people. They acknowledged that direct General Elections are efforts to improve the appearance of leadership, in accordance with the aspirations of the people, but in the reality have not been able to run optimally. Patterns of leadership in accordance with the aspirations of the people, was the leadership that can protect and improve the life of its people, including community economic empowerment. The reduced degree of participation in elections means increasing the number (percentage) of “Golput” (non-voting). Therefore, the public wants a change in the General Election system, so, the process and the effect of the General Election implementation is more efficient-to-use, in realizing the life of the nation-state that is democraticparticipatory. Therefore, the public desired a General Election format, which is the separation of the National General Elections (Central) and Regional General Elections. The National General Election is a combination of the Central Legislative Elections (DPR and DPD) and the Presidential Election. Regional General Elections is a combination of Legislative Elections (DPRD province, district, and city) and the Regional Executive Election (governors, regents, mayors). National General Elections held first and then followed by the Regional General Election with a two-year time span. Those two years, were used for the preparation of the next General Election, evaluates the results of the General Elections which are already running, and reduce the saturation level of the public.