AL-AHRUF AL-SAB’AH: Sebuah Fenomena Sejarah Al-Qur‘an ( Dalam Kajian Klasik dan Kontemporer)
el-Qudsy, Abdul Khaliq Hasan
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This writing will effort to talk over the existence of Al-Ahruf Al-sab’ah in Al-Qur’an, sociology-historically, the fact of Al-Ahruf Al Sab’ah appeared in Madinah period. It’s appeared because of variant factors of language background including dialect that owned by Moslem, therefore, there are a lot of dialects different in reading Al-Qur’an. This fact was documented in Hadist Rasulullah SAW. Based on the study of sanad Hadist, was discovered 46 sanad that related to the existence of Al-Ahruf Al Sab’ah; 38 Sanad got Shahih and the other 8 sanad got dhoif status. The existence of Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah in this Al-Qur’an was responded by the experts of Ulum Qur’an. Briefly their respond can be classified into two category, those are; received and refused. The experts of Ulum Qur’an from Sunni Mahzab received the existence of Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah in Al-Qur’an, because it was good both from matan Hadist or Sanad, the existence of Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah in Al-Qur’an was strong enough and Mutawatir. On the other side, the experts of Ulum Al Qur’an from Syiah Mazab were refused the existence of Al Ahraf Al Sab’ah in Al-Qur’an. The reason was hadist Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah didn’t valid, because those hadist according to their value were contrary with the stories of syiah imam/leader who ma’ shum. Beside that, in history of Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah there was contradiction (Tanaqudh) among one history and the others, therefore, those stories couldn’t be regarded as the foundation. Among the experts of Ulum Al Quran from Sunni Mahzab were discovered some interpretations towards Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah. Among them were translated Al Ahruf Al Sab’ah as the seven different words in the same meaning like the words agbil, taal, halumma etc. A part of them were translated as seven Arabic dialects, those are; Quraisy, PROFETIKA, Jurnal Studi Islam, Vol. 9, No. 1, Januari 2007: 33-62 34 Hudzail, Tsaqif, Huwazan, Tamim, Kinanah, and Yaman. Those seven dialects were as fushah Arabic. Another part was translated as the seven ways to read Al-Qur’an (qiraat sab’ah). The last part was translated as the different dialects and pronunciation of lafadz Al-Qur’an because of different in age. Besides that, among them were also discovered three opinions about mushaf Usmani version. First, Mushaf Usmani was involved one word only. Second, Mushhaf Usmani had involved all al-ahruf al-sab’ah. Third Mushaf Usmani was involved several words from al-ahruf al-sab’ah that can be accommodated and suitable with the reading of Rasullullah SAW and Gabriel.